About me

Dr. P. Prince Dhanaraj

Ph.D. Education, Ph.D. Economics, Ph.D. Management

Educational Consultant,

Teaching, Research & International Collaboration
South India.


Nature of Motivation

A vision that motivates is the standard constant for success across all social classes and/or life styles.  It does not matter how many years a person spent in classrooms, a motivating vision is the common denominator for achievement.  Abraham Lincoln never went to school; he became President of America, because he had a vision that motivated him.  In addition, his vision was so powerful that it motivated everyone around him and that energy motivated the country.motivation-and-theories-of-motivation-2-638.jpg


Elements of Motivation

Motivation starts with the desire to be free, to be free from dependency on others, freedom to live the lifestyle we dream of, freedom to explore our ideas.  Total freedom is not possible or desirable, but the struggle to achieve that deal is the basis for motivation.  Motivation is but on three basic elements:

1.     Motivation starts with a need, vision, dream or desire to  achieve  the  seemingly  impossible.  Creativity is associated with ideas , projects, and goals, which can  be considered a path to freedom.

2.     Developing and maintaining a love-to-learn lifestyle  become  involved  with  risky ventures, and/or continually  seek  new  opportunities  learn what works and does not work.

3.     Developing and maintaining a desire to overcome  Barriers and to bounce back from discouragement or failure individuals learn to tolerate the agony failure brings.  It any endeavor, that is worthwhile, barriers and failure will be there. Bouncing back requires creative thinking as it is a learning process.  In addition, bouncing back requires starting again at number    one.



A small bird collects the material to build its nest in the upper corner of our drawing room.  We try to remove it as soon as we see it.  The bird, however, again brings the small pieces of straw, leaves etc., and gets back to building its nest.  What makes it work so hard? Why did it learn to build the nest?  Similarly, we see a student slogging day and night during exams days or a boy constantly trying to learn cycling even after getting many cuts and bruises.  What makes them engage in one or the other type of learning and continue their effort even after facing many handicaps and obstacles?

Answers to such questions related to the why of learning lie in a keyword ‘Motivation’.  The bird, which is building its nest; the student, who is studying hard; and the boy, who is learning to cycle-all do so because of the ‘motivation’. They learn because they are motivated to learn.  They act because they are persuaded to act in order to satisfy their basic needs and attain the desired goals.  There is something that energizes or compel them to act and behave in a specified way.  The question arises as to what is it that pushes and pulls an individual to move or act in a specified manner to attain the desired objectives.  In psychology, it is named as motive.  A motive drives our behaviour in the same way as a motor vehicle is driven by the fuel in its tank.  There are a number of motives in our social life that are responsible for energizing and motivating our behaviour.  These motives can be broadly classified into two categories as-Primary motives, and secondary motives.


Primary Motives

These are linked with the basic primary needs associated with the biological or physiological well being of an individual.  That is why these motives are often named as biological or physiological motives.  The motives ensure the preservation of life for an individual and his race.  Examples of such motives are hunger, thirst, sex, avoidance of pain, elimination of body wastes, sleep and rest.  The primary motives are universal motives; they are found in all living organisms-human or non-human in one form or the other.  They serve the basic physiological need of an organism.  They are inborn and innate.


Secondary Motives

Secondary motives are linked with one’s socio-psychological needs and hence are named as the psychological or social motives.  They are acquired like other forms of learned behaviour in the course of seeking satisfaction to our socio-psychological needs.  As examples of these motives we may name achievement motive, self -actualization motive, security motive, application motive, affiliation motive etc.

Such motivated behaviour of an individual possesses the following characteristics.

1.     A motive works as a source or energizer for pushing and pulling the motivated      behaviour.

2.     It is in fact aimed at the satisfaction of one or the other basic need.

3.     One’s behaviour can be properly initiated and its continuity properly assured in the shape of his motivated behaviour

4.     Motivated behaviour is quite selective. It tries to respond to the environmental stimuli strictly in view of the satisfaction of the desired needs linked with the motivated behaviour.

5.     Motivated behaviour has dynamicity and flexibility in its nature. In the course of behaving, if there is some alteration in the nature of the further requirements or satisfaction of the need, it may bring change in one’s motives of behaving.  As a result, the shape or direction of the motivating behaviour may altogether be changed as per the demands of the new situation.

6.     Motivated behaviour is goal directed. The individual is totally engaged in the realization of the goals of his motivated behaviour.  The realization of one’s goal may further put him in the cycle of motivated behaviour as he may feel the necessity of the realization of his further needs in the path of his progress or cycle of his life.

7.     Motivated behaviour helps us in seeking equilibrium between our needs and their satisfaction. It lies between one’s need and its satisfaction.  Since the key to our adjustment lies in the satisfaction of our needs, the motivated behaviour proves an important tool and means for making ourselves adjusted and integrated.

From what we have discussed above, we can now derive a workable definition of the term ‘motivation’ or ‘motivated behaviour’ in the following way;  Motivation as a process or behaviour refers to reinforced, selective and goal-directed behaviour initiated and energized by a motive which aims to maintain balance and equilibrium of the person in relation to his environment by keeping his basic needs satisfied.


The Motivational Cycle

Motivation, as we have discussed earlier stand for the state of an organism which involves the existence of a need that moves or drives him from within towards a goal for the satisfaction of the desired need.

As visualized from the following figure the motivation or motivation behaviour functions in a continuous flow in the shape of a cycle named as motivational cycle and can be explained as follows;

2.     The behaviour is initiated on account of some inherent need. Thereby, the first stage or the starting point of the motivation cycle is the birth of a desire, want or need in an individual.  This desire, want or need makes an individual think about the ways and means of its satisfaction.  He may now become quite anxious and perturbed for the satisfaction of his desire or need, such that the stage of his mind and body become a germinating point for the birth of a drive or motive.

3.     The drive or motive so produced on account of the felt need or desire now becomes a driver, persuader and energizer of one’s behaviour. It initiates one’s behaviour to a goal-directed path, provides sufficient inputs for the continuation of such behaviour till the goal in terms of the realization of the desired need, desire or want is not attained.  Thus in the end, the organism is able to reach the desired goal and get relief from the anxiety and tension with the satisfaction of his need and motive

4.     However, what one gets from the satisfaction of his felt need or desire through his motivated behaviour provides a temporary halt to his behavioural activities. The journey is not at all completely stopped but in fact advances further with a new zeal and enthusiasm for the realization of some other needs and desires.


Share Group Dynamic


Meaning :

            Dynamic stands for a force. Therefore the term ‘group dynamics’ refers to the forces of the group.  In group dynamics we make a study of these forces and try to understand the components which are responsible for the rise of these forces and at the same time we also study the circumstances in which these forces are active.  We investigate into the consequences of these forces and find out the methods of modifying them in the desired direction.  After obtaining the knowledge about these things we try to utilize it for achieving some goal.

Group dynamics is also concerned with the study of techniques and procedures for altering the structure and/or the behaviour of a social group.  Thus in group dynamics changes are brought in the behaviour pattern of its members.

Prof. W.C. Trow has defined group dynamics as “the scientific study of the behaviour of individuals in various group relationships and of group processes under varying internal and external conditions, sometimes with a view to improving their effectiveness…”




A group functions effectively when there is cooperation among its members.  Unfortunately the present system of education is competitive.  Students compete against each other to secure better marks.


Due to this spirit of competition there is little cooperation among the students.  But in society cooperation is needed for social progress.  In schools children learn competition and not cooperation.  Therefore, they become misfits in society.

In modern education the principles of group dynamics are being applied in learning and efforts are made to teach children different social roles.  Group dynamics in learning is useful from the following points of view:

1.     To prepare the group for a new experience or to meet difficult social situation.

2.     To present a problem or situation for group observation and analysis.

3.     To provide practice in a skill.

4.     To give the group of students insight into a person’s behaviour.

5.     To provide opportunity or medium for the release of tensions.

6.     To develop the qualities of leadership and following.

7.     To develop in students the power of decision making and desirable social skills.


Group Dynamics and the Teacher

The teacher can usefully employee the principles of group dynamics in the classroom if

he pays attention to the following points:

1.     The teacher should see that the students are interested in their studies and keep their interests alive.

2.     The teacher should clearly know about the factor of individual differences and its effect on pupil’s needs and interests.

3.     Keeping in view the factor of individual differences, the teacher should provide motivation for his students.

4.     The teacher should clarify the goals of learning and thus motivate his students.

5.     The teacher should be sympathetic, friendly and helpful.

6.     The teacher should provide reward and give encouragement in order to motivate students.

7.     The teacher should keep his students informed about their progress periodically.


Group Behaviour

Meaning :

            A person behaves differently as an individual and as a member of some group.  When a person behaves as a member of the group his behaviour is called group behaviour.

Group behaviour may be good or bad.

The group behaviour of a man will not be identical with his individual behaviour.

In the individual behaviour a man is free to think, to feel, and to act in his own way.  But as a member of the group he has some pressure and force of the group on him.  It makes him lose his individuality and to think, to feel and to act in the manner of the group.

Group seems to have some magic effect on the behaviour of a person.  For example, everybody wants to earn name and fame, but when a player plays in the team, he forgets himself and plays for the good name of his team, he forgets himself and plays for the good name of his team.

When in the mob of students for strike, some leader suggests the breaking of school furniture, all other students at once begin to do so.  It is an undesirable type of group behaviour. Not a single student would like to behave in this way when alone.

Group behaviour is the result of the group mind.  It is a fact that mind is the controlling factor in man.  His behaviour is governed by his, mind.

Group behaviour is governed by the group mind. Group mind depends upon the nature of the group.  Group mind of the class or the team is not the same as the mind of the mob.

Group mind is the result of several minds working together but it is not equal to their sum total.  It is something different.  It is a sort of collective mind which makes all members think, feel and act in a way different from that in which they would think, feel and act as individual.


Suggestion means to accept the ideas of others or to think as others think.  It helps the herd instinct.  Children are readily prone to suggestions and their ideas, opinions and beliefs are largely determined by suggestions of others, who are very popular with them.

Two kinds of Suggestion

Suggestion is of two kinds: Mass Suggestion and Prestige Suggestion.

Mass suggestion comes from a group or an association.  Prestige suggestion comes from a person who is superior.  No smoking by the Indian women is the result of the working of Mass suggestion through the customs and traditions of the Indian society.  Listening to the advice of a teacher and acting accordingly is an example of Prestige suggestion.

Suggestion should be always positive.  For example, if a teacher wants to inculcate in children an idea of cleanliness, he should say, “The boys are lovers of cleanliness.  They keep the classrooms clean”.

Value of Suggestion

Parents and teachers may use their superior knowledge and experience to influence children and to inculcate socially useful attitudes in them through suggestion.


Sympathy means to catch and copy the feelings of others or to feel as others feel. It helps the herd instinct.

Two aspects of Sympathy

            Sympathy may be conscious as well as unconscious.  A player’s feeling sorry to see another player injured is an example of conscious sympathy. Children’s beginning to cry by seeing a child crying is an example of unconscious sympathy.

How Sympathy works?

Children acquires many feelings from their parents through the force of sympathy because they come in their closer contact to a great extent.  For example, if a child’s parents look down upon beggars, he will also begin to do so.  In school situation strike is an example of the effect of sympathy.  A few leaders influence all the students through the force of sympathy.

Educational value of Sympathy

The tendency of sympathy has a great educational value.  Education is to help socialization and adjustment, and for it education can harness this tendency.  Physical education has a great opportunity to utilize it through team games.  He can teach them that as it is essential for the players to keep together and to act in an identical way for the success of the team, in the same way, it is essential to keep together for the safety and success of every group.


Imitation means to copy the actions of others or to act as others act.  Children show this tendency at a very early age and they use it widely to learn to carry out mechanical tasks of everyday life.  It helps the instinct of curiosity.

Two aspects of Imitation

Imitation may be conscious as well as unconscious.  A player’s imitating the style of a tennis champion in order to excel in it, is an example of conscious imitation.  School-boys’ running while going home by seeing others running is an example of unconscious imitation.

Whom does children imitate?

Children imitate those persons whom they love and respect. Parents, teachers and coaches are the best persons in this respect and children have a tendency for copying them.  Parents, teachers and coaches can use imitation as a means of inculcating good habits in children as regularly, respect, discipline, etc. by putting the practical examples of their own good habits before them.




Motivation can be mainly classified as two categories.

1.     Intrinsic Motivation

2.     Extrinsic Motivation6771988_orig.png


1. Intrinsic / Internal / Natural / Primary Motivation

Intrinsic means value or quality that is existing within and not coming from outside.  Hence intrinsic motivation is that which comes from one’s own heart and from inner feelings.  Hence it is natural that the motivation depends upon the needs of a person and his instincts or inner feelings.  It is natural that the quest of the thirsty person is for drinking water.  Hence motivation leads to better and real learning.

A person will derive satisfaction, if he is motivated intrinsically to achieve an aim.

 Extrinsic / External / Artificial / Incentive / Secondary Motivation

Extrinsic means that originating from outside.  If a motivation comes from outside it is called extrinsic motivation.  The motivation is realized because of external stimuli.  In this category a person is found with lack of interest and eagerness in doing a work.  Extrinsic motivation plays an important role in teaching-learning process.  The teacher acts as an incentive and motivates the students through his proper teaching with righteous use of rewards,  praise or punishment and gradually makes the students to realize that learning gives the students a joyous situation.  Thus the teacher propels the students to give their greater interest to learning activity.  Anyhow extrinsic motivation is definitely inferior to intrinsic motivation.  But it is very often found that the teacher has very little to do with the intrinsic motivation.  Hence sensible extrinsic motivation is a substitute for intrinsic motivation.

Motivation and Learning

In education, motivation is the art of stimulating interest in the pupil where has been no such interest.  “Motivation in school learning involves arousing, sustaining and desirable conduct”.

We have mentioned in the previous section, all human behaviour is goal directed.  In all types of learning, there must be a goal and hence we say that all learning is motivated.

It is the task of the teacher to improve the conditions of effective learning.  He can do it by introducing motivation.  He will manipulate incentives and goals, create proper atmosphere, arouse interest and induce a pleasant state of satisfaction among children.  Some one has remarked, “The secret of successful teaching is to discover means of making the pupil like and want to do the things that the teacher wants to do”.


Functions of Motivation

            Motivation depends upon the behaviour of the student.  It is related to their needs, attitudes and life goals.  Motivation for learning means to motivate the children for the learning. The teacher must use the above factors to make the students learn.  John P.Decceco has suggested some functions to motivate the children.

1.     Arousal Functions : According to Donald Hebb, “Arousal is an energizer but not a guide, and engine not a steering gear”.  This has certain factors like need, urge, curiosity, goal etc.  Their inner urges are the real sources of interest.  The teacher should arouse the students with the help of good methods techniques and aids.

2.     Expectancy Functions : According to Voom. “Expectancy is a momentary belief that a particular outcome will follow a particular act”.  The teacher has to make the students clearly realize that they are expected to achieve certain objectives through the learning process.  They should be made to expect certain outcomes as a result of learning.  So, the teacher must first set out the objectives while planning the lesson.  Objectives should be according to the level of aspiration.

3.     Incentive functions: Clark Hull and Henneth Spence believe that some activities of an organisam can be motivated by the goal object or incentive.  The teacher uses incentives to encourage the students for great effort.   The incentives may be feedback, praise and blame, reward and punishment, competition and co-operation.

4.     Disciplinary Functions : According to Solman, ‘Punishment as a stimulus, an individual seeks to escape or avoid’.   This is not very sound means of motivation.  The degree of punishment must be related to the degree of the mistake.  I may cause emotional disturbance in the children.  So, the teacher must be careful. 



Hull’s Drive Reduction theory / Stimulus  Response theories of motivation

It is also known as behaviouristic theories of motivation.  In these theories the concepts of motivation are largely governed by the principles of reinforcement.  Behaviour is assumed to be purposive, and different theoretical concepts are employed to deal with the emerging aspects and the directive aspects of motivation.  The classical forms of behaviourism utilizes a ‘drive-reduction’ concept, which regards the basic source of energy in the organism as undifferentiated drive.  The direction of behaviour, then, is conceived to be a product of learning mechanisms for channelizing this drive into goal oriented behaviour acts.  Many of these theories imply that drive arises directly from need states within the organism, especially physiologically based tissue needs.Motivation-Theories_final.jpg

According to this theory all the human behaviour is the result of some responses towards stimulus.

Walia (1977) has summarized the behaviouristic theories of motivation with following tenets:

A.   All behaviour is motivated in the sense that all behaviour is based on needs and drives.

B.   All learning involves reward in the sense that only those responses that reduce need or drive are stamped in.

C.   Needs may be biological or psychological, primary or secondary.

D.   Energy is the function of need reduction, or of inferred (functional) reinforcements, its direction is accounted for by habits.





While discussing the process of motivation through a motivation cycle, we have used the terms needs, drives and incentives, etc. All these concepts need a necessary explanation for knowing about their true nature and role in the process of motivation.  Let us briefly discuss all of them.



Meaning of the Term ‘NEED’

We make use of the term ‘need’ in our day-to-day life in many ways.  When we desire or wish to have food, we say that we are in need of the food.  We need water for quenching our thirst, sex objects for the satisfaction of our sex needs, companions and friends in the hours of loneliness and loneliness or rest after being tied from the busy schedule. We have a craving for being loved or to love and also keep struggling for some status, recognition and appreciation for our work and duties.  In this way, the term ‘need’ is very often used as synonymous with the terms ‘want’ and ‘desire’.  We are always in a state of anxiety, eagerness and temptation for fulfilling our desires or wants.  In fact these desires or wants (psychologically named as needs) prompt or persuade us to behave in a specific way.

We may have a workable definition of the term ‘need’ in the following way:

Need refers to a condition or state of our mind that prompts or persuades us to act or behave in a specific way:



There is no end to our desires or wants in our life.  As a result it is difficult to number our individual needs.  However, there are needs that are quite essential for an individual in terms of his staying alive, maintaining proper physical and mental health, leading a social life and getting well in terms of personality development etc.  Such essential needs are referred to as an individual’s basic needs.  These basic needs for their proper understanding may be broadly classified into the following two categories.

E.    Physiological or Biological Needs

F.    Socio-psychological NeedsPhysiological or Biological Needs

All our bodily or organic needs fall into this category. They may be further categorized as under:

In this first category of biological needs are te need for oxygen, water and food.  These needs are most fundamental for our survival and existence.  Without them, we can hardly survive.

In the chain of our survival and existence, the other category of the biological needs include:Need for rest when tired

§  Need for being active when rested

§  Need for sleep when deprived of it for long

§  Need for regular elimination of waste products from the body

§  Need for having an even internal body temperature

§  Need for protection from the threats of physical environment like hazards of weather,

§  Need for protection from the threats of physical environment like hazards of weather, natural calamities, wild animals etc.

In the third category of biological needs, we can place the need for satisfaction of sex urge or desire to seek sex experiences. Although sex urge is not essential for the survival of an individual, it is the strongest human urge in the satisfaction of which lies his proper growth, development, adjustment and well-being.  Moreover, the satisfaction of this need and normal sex behaviour are more essential for a happy family life and the continuity and survival of the human species.

In the last category of biological needs, we have needs that are associated with the demands of our senses.  These sensory needs include the need for physical contact, sensory stimulation and stimulus variability and manipulation.  Although we may not die if deprived of these needs, they are supposed to be quite essential for our general welfare and optimal growth.

Socio-psychological Needs.

            Under this category, we can list all those needs that are associated with the socio-cultural environment of an individual.  They are acquired through social learning.  Although such needs are not linked with the survival of the organism or species, their deprivation may lead to a psychological stage seriously affecting his survival and welfare.  These needs for the sake of clarity may be classified as follows:

            vii.            Need for freedom or gaining independence : An individual possesses a craving for independence. Nature has created us free and independent as individuals and requires us to remain so.  Therefore, all human beings have an urge to remain free and independent.

         viii.            Need for security : Every one of us needs to feel secure not only to saved ourselves from the physical dangers but also from socio-psychological angles. One needs desirable emotional, social and economical security for his well-being.

              ix.            Need for love and affection : Every one of us, irrespective of age, caste, colour and creed, has a strong desire to love and beloved. Depending upon one’s age and circumstances, it may vary in kind and nature, but a sort of emotional craving for the satisfaction of this need is exhibited universally by all living organisms.

                 x.            Need to achieve : Every human being has a strong desire to achieve some or the other things like money, fame, reputation, degree, merit, position, medals, good life partner, spiritual attainment, etc., not only for raising his status in the eyes of others but also for the satisfaction he draws from his own accomplishment.

              xi.            Need for recognition or social approval: Each one of us has an inherent desire for gaining recognition, appreciation and esteem in the eyes of others. An artist may thus desire to  known for his art, a young woman may desire to be appreciated for her beauty, good manners or house-keeping by fellow human beings, especially the members of the group to which she belongs.  A student may show this desire in surpassing other students of his class and thus gaining required social status, prestige or approval from his fellow students, teachers and parents.

            xii.            Need for social company: Man is referred to as a social animal in the sense that he has a strong urge to be with his own kind and maintain social relations with them. The real strength of this need can be felt by those individuals who are faced with social rejection or solitary confinement.

         xiii.            Need for self-assertion: Every one of us has an inherent desire to get an opportunity to rule or dominate others. It may vary in intensity from person to person but it is surely exhibited by all of us in one or the other situation irrespective of age, strength and status.  Some may show it to their juniors, servants, life partner or children while others may exhibit it towards their pet animals, birds and even inanimate things like dolls or pictures.  This need of asserting oneself gives birth to an important motive called power motive that works as a strong determiner of one;s personality and behaviour.

         xiv.            Need for self-expression or self-actualization : We all have an inherent craving for the expression of our self and actualization of our own potentialities. An individual may have a hidden poet, musician or painter in his self and thus may have a strong desire to get his talent exhibited or nurtured.  So, one wants to get adequate opportunities for the expression and development of his potentialities and subsequently he strives for it and is not happy until he gets opportunities for such expression and self-actualization.


Types of Leaders

There are three types of leaders which are as follows:leader-type06.jpg

1.Autocratic : He does not discuss the problems of the group with members and he takes independent decisions and decides the group activities.  He expects the members of the group to simply obey and follow his decisions.

2.Democratic : He lives for the members of the group.  He cooperates with the members of the group to the utmost extent possible.  A group decision is always taken by the leaders based on decision with the members of the group.  He knowns not only to give commands, but also to follow the commands.

3.Laissez-Fair : He is a leader only in name.  He does not involve himself with any of the group decisions and group behaviours.  The members have complete freedom.

Qualities of leaders

1.     A leader should be a person of dynamic personality. A fine physique always appeals to the masses and can be hardly missed.

2.     He should have a lot of confidence in himself. He should be able to inspire confidence in others. He should be able to convince others about his superior powers so that they accept him as their leader. His instinct of self-assertion should be strong but well-balanced.

3.     He should be a tactful person of high intelligence. He should have a sound judgment so as to decide things in due time and guide his followers with his mature judgment.

4.     A leader is always worshipped as the hero by his followers. Thus it is necessary that a leader should follow certain ideals and should practice them in his own life.  He should be an example before others.

5.     A leader must be conversant with mob mentality and the psychology of the group. This will enable him to understand and handle people better.

6.     A good leader must be a master of a language and speech. He should be a good orator and should be able to carry masses with him.

Importance of leaders

The fate and the progress of a country depends on its leaders.  If they are honest and persons of integrity, then the country is bound to progress; if it is otherwise, then the fate of the country is sealed.  In a democratic age, leadership is not hereditary and leaders are from the masses. Thus in a democracy it becomes the duty of the schools to train children for leadership.  The school has a very important part to play Children join the school generally at the age of six. At that stage their mind is plastic and can be moulded as desired.  Some children who are eminently suited to become leaders should be trained by the teacher for leadership.

Training for leadership

Some people hold that leaders are born and not made.  This viewpoint is not acceptable to the modern man in a democratic age.  He believes that ample equal opportunities should be provided to all to become leaders of the society.  It is here that the place of training for leadership arises.

1.     Locating leadership : There ought to be opportunities in the school by way of extracurricular activities to provide for the instinct of self-assertion of the child.  The teacher should pick up children whom he considers eminently suited for leadership.  They should be given positions of responsibility.

2.     Teacher’s example : The teacher should provide by his personal example an ideal of leadership to be imitated by the child.

3.     Knowledge about national history : The teacher should impact knowledge, about national heroes and their qualities to the child in the class-room.  The children will try to develop these qualities in their own personality.

4.     Various group activities : A large number of group activities should be provided in the school. Steps should be taken to encourage all the pupils to participate in them.  Regular training in their proper organizations should be imparted.  Group competitions should also be organized.  Self-Government in schools provides great opportunities for training in leadership.

5.     Development of selfregarding sentiment : The leaders should see that children have a correct concept of their capacities and role in the society.  They should be clear about their future role and should take due pride in it.

6.     Formation of good habits : Children should be encouraged to form good habits like, a social nature, pleasant manners and conversation.  These social habits enable them to lead a balanced social life.  They should also be encouraged to form good reading habits and read the biographies of great men.

Training of leadership at different stages : At the elementary stage intelligent children may be picked up and proper opportunities should be provided.  At the middle stage some children may be encouraged to assume leadership in academic subjects and others who are normal in their studies may assume leadership in the playground. At the Matriculation stage some children may be encouraged to assume leadership in individual subjects and some in extra-mural activities


Maslow’s Need

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy

            Hierarchy of needs was proposed by Abraham Maslow (1954) and modified by Root (1970).  Maslow describes how motivation develops stage by stage from purely physiological drives to complex social purposes.  He classified the needs into five categories-physiological needs, safety needs, love needs, self esteem needs and self-actualization needs.


1.     Physiological Needs : The basic physiological desires are food, water, shelter, sex etc., They are the most basic and fundamental human needs.

2.     Safety Needs : It arises on account of future expectations. For example, insurance against future, keeping a bank balance, investing in LIC etc.

3.     Belongingness and love Needs : Need for affection, praise, warmth, acceptance, approval, affiliation etc.,

4.     Self-Esteem Needs: Need for achievement, status, self-respect, self-confidence, feelings of strength and adequacy.

5.     Self-Actualization Needs: Need for self-fulfilment, self-expression, fulfilment of potentialities, working out one’s own mental personality.

Maslow emphasizes that needs should be arranged in hierarchial order.  An individual will not consider a particular need till those that are below the desired ones are satisfied.  A beggar will be concerned only on satisfying his physiological need and he would not bother about the other needs.  Hence the satisfaction of lower needs motivates an individual to strive for greater needs.

The first three needs are granted or denied by external factors.  They are strong and recurring in nature and grow strong when it is denied.  The last two have growth motives and are emerging from within.  When its aims are fulfilled it grows stronger.  A person will become self-actualized if he receives full satisfaction from the basic needs.


Achievement Motivation theory

A person with high ambition for achievement faces the problems and obstacles which may be treated as challenges to be overcome and he will be motivated to tackle them. Achievement is divided into two parts and are in contrast to each other. (i) a need for success (ii) a need to avoid failure.  Hence the achievement motivation has the desire to achieve success and the desire to avoid failure.  ‘The pursuit of excellence’ is the motto behind achievement motivation.  The theory of Achievement Motivation was formulated by McClelland and his associates in 1951 at Harvard.  According to him two factors are important for motivation – i) environment cue and ii) affective arousal in the organism.

The teacher can follow suitable methods to develop achievement motivation in students.  Some of them are listed below:

§  By narrating the biographies of great men, the pupils may be made to develop a high achievement motive.

§  By providing a proper school environment.

§  By making the pupils to involve in group work.




Components of Motivation

Fear of failure

            Bernard says tat school work should be sufficiently varied so that every student has a chance to succeed at his own level.  Further, he says that success develops self-confidence among learners.  The success is most effective for average student, but it provides motivation to every one.


Hope of Success

The failure is opposite to the success technique. Sometimes, failure functions as motive.  Whenever a learner accepts it as a challenge, he gets force and reinforcement for the work.  Its nature is external as well as internal.  Too much failures in life lowers down one’s level of aspiration.  Again, failures can be helpful in motivation only from ‘gifted students’ point of view.  Hence, it is required that a teacher should help his students in remaining optimistic and in dealing failures with courage, treating them just as “Rest-Houses” on a very long path to be covered in one’s life.

Motivation in the Classroom

Before imparting the knowledge, it is the primary duty of the teacher to motivate the children properly for a particular learning situation.  Through the following methods motivation can be assured.


Praise and Blame

Praise and blame are extrinsic.  Extrinsic means operating from outside.  It will act on students for better learning, if it is used in a proper manner.  Experiments reveal that it stimulates the average and inferior children.  But it has lesser effect on superior children.  Blame has its positive effects on superior children.  Girls are much fond of praise than boys.  In general praise has better effect than blame irrespective of sex, age and ability.

Reward and Punishment

Praise and blame are awarded through reward and punishment.  Rewards are given in terms of money, momento, medals etc. Though it has its merits it has its own demerits also.  Sometimes, a student may try to get success by adopting unfair means.  Punishment serves as negative motivating factor.  It is a primitive method.  Punishment should be used in a limited sense, otherwise it will produce negative result.


Level of Aspiration


The concept of level of aspiration was developed by Kurt Lewin.  Level of aspiration refers to the standard which a person sets up for himself in any area of activity.  How high the level of aspiration can be, depends on the difficulty involved in a given task.  In other words, if a person desires to do a very difficult task, it is said that his level of aspiration is very high.





Level of aspiration refers the personal goal of an individual which he expects to achieve keeping in view his abilities.  From this point of view, level of aspiration has the following characteristics:

1.     The kind of activity or goal, which a person considers desirable.

2.     The amount of success which is anticipated by the individual.

3.     The meaning and significance of success for the individual.

4.     The level of aspiration is based on an individual’s past experiences.

5.     The level of aspiration is generally related very closely with the concept of self which a person has.

It may be mentioned here that the concept of self is developed out of previous experiences and the wishes and desires of an individual.

Factors Affecting Level of Aspirations

Following factors affect the level of aspirations of an individual:

1.     Success and failaure.

2.     Personality

3.     Group Standards

4.     Reward and Punishment

5.     Social class


Teacher Role

Role of the Teacher

      The teacher has to play a vital role in this training for leadership for the following reasons:

1.     The teacher is respected and occupies an important place in the school group.

2.     He is like a hero in the eyes of his pupils.

3.     He has superior knowledge and experience. He should, therefore, keep in view the following principles.

A.   He should create right type of atmosphere in the class by adopting a helpful attitude towards children and their problems. He should act as a friend, philosopher and guide.

B.   The teacher should teach well in the class and plan before hand the extra-mural activities which he is going to organize in the class.

§  He should encourage children to suggest improvements if they can in the proper running of various activities.Proper opportunities should be provided for participation of all the pupils. There should be some activity for every child and every child in some activity.


Classroom Climate

D.G. Ryan (1960) has developed theory of ‘Teacher-Behaviour’. His basic assumption is that teacher-behaviour is measurable and quantifiable.  He refers the teacher-behaviour in classroom.  It has been noted that measurement is important in the process of motivating students, diagnosing areas of learning difficulty and excellence, evaluating student achievement and instructional effectiveness.  These are the results of classroom interaction between teacher and taught.  The classroom interaction generates the classroom social and emotional climate.  The classroom climate influence learning, achievement and process of motivation.  Several observation techniques have developed and used for measuring classroom teacher behaviour or classroom interaction or social emotional climate.  It is based on certain principles of measurement.  Among the major principles that classroom measurement reflect, the following are of prime importance.

1.     Measurement must be specific to the goals of the instruction.

2.     Measuring tools must require student responses that clearly represent the factors or the tools are developed too simple.

3.     Tools must cover adequately the domain of important behaviours about which          conclusions are to be drawn.

4.     Measurements must be objective to the extent that they can be verified or reproduced by a qualified or trained person in addition to the teacher.

5.Measurement must be effective so that a maximum of useful information can be  obtained in the time that can be justified for testing.

6.The observation exercises should approximate as early as possible the criterion behaviour of the teaching.


There are more than two dozen observation techniques of classroom interaction or social-emotional climate have been developed and used.  Ned A.Flander’s name is highly associate for measuring the classroom interaction.  He has developed ten category system of interaction analysis.  It is an objective and reliable tool for measuring or quantifying classroom teacher behaviour.


Measurement of Classroom Climate

The systematic observation techniques are used for analyzing the teaching activities systematically and objectively.  The flow of classroom events can be recorded and analyzed.  It provides the structure of teaching events and flow of teacher-behaviour.  Thus, the teaching activities are diagnosed and provide the awareness about the teaching events and components, but teaching or teacher behaviour cannot be evaluated or graded.  The theory of teacher-behaviour has oriented the concept of interaction analysis of teaching.


4 Self -test

Motivation and Group Dynamic

Choose the Correct Answer :

1.     What helps the students to achieve the best in their activities?

a. Academic achievement                         b. Achievement aptitude

c. Vocational interest                                  d. Intellectual development

2.     The stimulus which fulfils a need is

a. Attention                b. Learning                 c. Memory                  d. Motivation

3.     The word ‘motivation’ is derived from

a. Movers              b. Motum               c.   Moves                   d.  Motion

4.     Who described in detail the achievement motivation?

a. Jackson              b. Watson             c. Atkinson                 d. Simpson

5.     Achievement motivation helps the betterment of society” This was proved with an experiment by

a. McClelland       b. Atkinson          c. Kolesnik                 d. Ausubel

6.     ‘The basic principles of human needs’ was propounded by

a. Maslow             b. Roof                 c. Kelli                       d. McClelland

7.     A child wants to play Which type of motivation does this belong to

a. Intrinsic motivation                 b. Extrinsic motivation

c. Intrinsic – Extrinsic                  d.   Achievement motivation

8.     Who said – “Intelligence is a continuously growing ability” ?

a. Alfred Binet                 b. Alfred Adler                  c. David Ausubel        d. Jean Piaget


9.     Out of many needs which helps to select a suitable and permanent need?

a. Motivation                      b. Maturity                  c. Perception               d. Insight

10.            How many types of human needs are there in Maslow’s need hierarchy theory?

a.  Four                b. Five                     c. Six                       d. Seven

11.            Motivation is closely related to

a. Achieving goal                                                b. Overcoming achievement

c. Selecting right response                              d. Fixing up goal

12.            A Group is

a. More than a collection of individuals           b. Individuals are inter-dependent

b. Individual with some common purpose      d. Individuals share an ideology

13.            In-Group means

a. We group                b. Formal group               c. Informal group           d. Organised group

14.            Psychology of the group is sometimes called as

a. Group mind        b. Group Dynamics         c. Group behaviour          d. Group interaction

15.            A candidate for examination suggests, “I shall definitely pass the examination” This refers  to

a. Auto-suggestion       b. Contra-suggestion      c. Prestige suggestion      d. Mass-suggestion

16.            “A child who has no confidence in his teacher refuses to accept the suggestion” – This refers to

a. Auto-suggestion      b. Contra-suggestion         c. Prestige suggestion       d.Mass-suggestion

17.            “We generally accept suggestion from elders whom we admire and respect” This type of suggestion is

 a. Auto-suggestion       b. Contra-suggestion       c. Prestige suggestion      d.Mass-suggestion

    18. Widows in ancient India sacrificed their self at the funeral pyre of their husbands. This type of suggestion

        a. Auto-suggestion              b. Contra-suggestion             c. Prestige suggestion         d. Mass-suggestion

    19. Children generally imitate

           a.   Sympathetic imitation              b. Unconscious imitation

            c.   Ideo-motor imitation d. Meaningless imitation

   20. A person laughs and we also laughs. This type of imitation is

          a. Unconscious imitation                               b. Ideo-motor imitation

          c. Sympathetic imitation                              d. Meaningless imitation

   21. The Player in the playfield raises his bat, and the spectator also raises his arm. This type of Imitation is

          a. Sympathetic imitation                             b. Unconscious imitation

           c.Ideo-motor imitation                               d. Meaningless imitation

   22. The headmaster is the type of

          a. Institutional leader       b. Dominant leader       c. Persuasive leader        d. Expert leader

   23. Napolean is the type of

          a. Institutional leader        b. Dominant leader       c. Persuasive leader      d. Expert leader


   24. Gandhiji is the type of

  a. Institutional leader     b. Dominant leader       c. Persuasive leader       d. Expert leader

   25. A scientists is the type of

    a. Institutional leader         b. Dominant leader        c. Expert leader          d. Persuasive leader