About me

Dr. P. Prince Dhanaraj

Ph.D. Education, Ph.D. Economics, Ph.D. Management

Educational Consultant,

Teaching, Research & International Collaboration
South India.

Intelligence & Creativity


In contrast to animals, man is considered to be endowed with certain cognitive abilities that make him a rational being.  He can reason, discriminate, understand, adjust and face new situations.  He is definitely superior to animals in all such aspects of behaviour.  But human beings themselves are not alike.  There are wide individual differences.  A teacher easily discovers these differences among his pupils.  Some learn with a good speed while others remain lingering for long.  There are some who need only one demonstration for handling the tools properly while for others even the repeated individual guidance brings no fruitful result.

What is it that causes one individual to be more effective in his response to a particular situation than another.  No doubt, interest, attitude, desired knowledge and skill etc., count towards this achievement.  But still there is something that contributes significantly towards these varying differences.  In psychology, it is termed as ‘Intelligence’. In ancient India, our great rishis named it ‘Viveka’



Since time immemorial, attempts have been made to understand the meaning and concept of intelligence. Let us be acquainted with the concept and meaning of intelligence by throwing light on the following aspects:

1.     Meaning and definition of intelligence.

2.     Some established facts about intelligence.

3.     Misconception about intelligence.

4.     Meaning and Definitions of Intelligence

As discussed earlier, in our day-to-day conversation and individual is said to be intelligent in proportion to his success in general life situations.  What is this intelligence that contributes towards such success, is a question that has been attempted by psychologists in different ways resulting in so many varied definitions.  Below we give some of these important definitions.


Woodworth and Marquis

            Intelligence means intellect put to use.  It is the use of intellectual abilities for handling a situation or accomplishing any task.


Intelligence is a general capacity of an individual consciously to adjust his thinking to new requirements.  It is general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life.


An individual is intelligent in proportion as he is able to carry on abstract thinking.


Intelligence is the capacity to learn and adjust to relatively new and changing conditions.

David Wechsler

Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposeful to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.

Alfred Binet

Intelligence is a capacity to think well, to judge well and to be self critical

Charles Spearman

Intelligence is rational thinking


Intelligence is the ability to undertake activities that are difficult, complex and abstract and which are adaptive to a goal, and are done quickly and which have social value and which lead to the creation of something new and different.



            Above we have given some definitions, more of such definitions can further be cited.  All these definitions when taken separately, give an incomplete picture because they partly emphasize that intelligence is the ability-to learn, to deal with abstraction and  to make adjustment or to adapt to new situations.

Some Established Facts about Intelligence

1.     The relation of intelligence with nature and nurture : There have been a number of attempts on the part of psychologists to weigh the relative importance of nature and nurture. The conclusion of their studies reveals that intelligence is the product of heredity and environment. Both are necessary for the intellectual growth of an individual and neither can be considered more important than the other.

2.     Distribution of intelligence: There are individual differences with regard to the distribution of intelligence in nature like wealth, health etc. This distribution is governed by a definite principle that states “The majority of the people are average, a few very bright and a few very dull”.

3.     Growth of intelligence: As a child grows in age, so does his intelligence as shown by intelligence tests. Now the questions arises as to at what age does this growth cease? The age of cessation of mental growth varies from individual to individual.  However, in majority of cases, intelligence reaches its maximum somewhat at the age of 16 or 20 in an individual.  After that the vertical growth of intelligence ceases.  But the horizontal growth-accumulation of knowledge and acquisition of skills-continues throughout the life span of an individual.

4.     Intelligence and Sex differences:

Various studies have been concluded to find out if women are less intelligent than men and vice versa.  The result of these researches have been either ways.  In some of the cases, no significant difference has been found.  Therefore, it is proper to think that difference in sex does not contribute towards the difference in intelligence.

5.     Intelligence and racial or cultural differences:

Whether a particular race, caste, or cultural group is superior to other in intelligence-the hypothesis has been examined by many research workers.  In U.S.A., it has been a burning problem for centuries.  The results of earlier studies, which considers the whites to be a superior race in comparison to the Negroes, have been questioned.  Now it has been established that intelligence is not the birth right of a particular race or group.  The ‘bright’ and the ‘dull’ can be found in any race, caste or cultural group and the differences that are found can be explained in terms of environment influences.



Misconception about Intelligence

There are a number of misconceptions prevalent about the nature and concept of intelligence. For the clarification let us be clear about what is not meant by intelligence.

(1) Intelligence is not knowledge though acquisition of knowledge depends, to a great extent, on intelligence and vice versa.

(2) Intelligence is not memory.  A very intelligent person may have a dull memory and vice versa.

(3) Intelligence is not guarantee against abnormal behaviour, backwardness and    delinquency in spite of the fact that it is one of the major factors contributing towards achievement, adjustment and character formation.



            Some Psychologists, notably Thorndike believe that several kinds of intelligence should be distinguished from each other.  According to him intelligence is of three kinds:

1.     Social Intelligence :

It refers to the knack of getting  along with people.  Socially intelligent person makes friends easily and understands human relations.

2.     Mechanical Intelligence :

It is the ability to deal effectively with machines or mechanical contrivances.

3.     Abstract Intelligence :

It is the ability to deal with symbols (both verbal and numerical), diagrams, formulae etc.

Prof. Howard Gardener of Harward University of U.S.A. in his book “Frames of Mind : The Theory of Multiple Intelligence”  has posted a provisional list of intelligences which include linguistic and logical skills (which I.Q. tests measure), Musical skills, Kinesthetic skills (exhibited by Surgeons, dancers etc.,) Spatial skills (displayed by Sculptors etc.), Interpersonal skills (important for politicians, salesmen etc.) and Intrapersonal skills (exhibited by planners and strategists)



With the help of definitions, we can be able to understand how intelligence operates or what type of behaviour makes an individual intelligent or unintelligent.  But it does not explain the structure of intelligence or in other words, the different components or elements of intelligence.  The theories of intelligence propagated by psychologists from time to time have tried to answer this question.  These theories can be grouped under two heads, namely, factor theories and cognitive theories.  However, in this text we will limit our discussion to factor theories.


Factor Theories of Intelligence

Let us try to discuss some of these theories below:


This theory holds that intelligence consists of one factor-a found of intellectual competency-which is universal for all the activities of an individual.

A man who has vigour can move so much to east as to the west.  Similarly if one has the fund of intelligence, he can utilize it in any area of his life and can be as successful in one area as in the other depending upon his fund.  However, in actual life situations, the ideas propagated by this theory do not fit well.  We find that the children who are bright in mathematics may, despite serious interest and hard work, be not so good in civics.  A student very good in conducting science experiments does not find himself equally competent in learning languages.  This makes us conclude that there is nothing like one single unitary factor in intelligence.  Therefore, the unitary theory stands rejected.


The main propagator of this theory was E.L. THORNDIKE.  As the name suggests, this theory considers intelligence a combination of numerous separate elements or factors, each one being a minute element of one ability.  So, there is no such thing as general intelligence (a single factor) and there are only many highly independent specific abilities which go into different tasks.

Monarchic and Anarchic theories thus hold the two extremes.  Just as we cannot assume good intelligence to be a guarantee of success in all the fields of human life, we cannot also say with certain specific type of abilities, one will be successful in a particular area and completely unsuccessful in the other.  As Gardner Murphy puts it, “There is a certain positive relationship between brightness in one field and brightness in another and so on.” This brings us to the conclusion that there should be a common factor running through all tasks.  The failure to explain such phenomena gave birth to another theory names Spearman’s two factor theory.



Brainstorming is a strategy or technique for allowing a group to explore ideas without judgment or censure.  In actual practice children may be asked to sit in a group for solving a problem and attacking it without any inhibition from many angles, in fact literally storming it by a number of possible ideas and solutions. creativity-theory-and-practice-55-638.jpg

To start with, the students may be provided with a focus, i.e. a particular problem like ‘Students Unrest’,  ‘Growing unemployment in India’,  ‘How to check truancy in our school’,  ‘What to do for improving school library services’ and so on.  The students are then asked to suggest ideas as rapidly as possible by observing the following norms:

1.     All ideas to be encouraged and appreciated, therefore, no criticism be allowed during the brainstorming session.

2.     Students are encouraged to make their ideas as unusual as possible and suggest as many ideas as they can.

3.     They are encouraged not only to put together separate ideas but also to suggest ideas that may be built on ideas already given by the fellow students.

4.     No evaluation or comment of any sort should be made until the session is over. After the expiry of  the session, all the ideas received (preferably written on the blackboard) should be discussed in a very free, frank and desirable environment and the most meaningful ideas should be accepted for the solution of the problem in hand.




Identification of Creative Children

            The term ‘Creativity’ cannot be used synonymously with giftedness.  Therefore, we should not make a mistake of considering every gifted child as a creative child.  Creativity in its all shapes and forms is the highest expression of giftedness that may or may not be found in a particular gifted child.  The problem then lies in the identification of the creative children.

Creative behaviour and expression, like other behaviour patterns, possesses its basic components in the form of cognitive, conative and affective behaviour.  Consequently, we can label a child creative to the extent to which he is able to demonstrate creative aspect in his thinking, feeling and doing behaviour.  For such labelling, we may employ two different approaches.

1.     making use of tests of creativity, and

2.     making use of non-testing devices observation, interview, rating scale, personality inventory, check-list etc.

Let us discuss these approaches one by one.


As we make use of intelligence tests to label a child as intelligent, we have the use of creativity tests for labelling a child as creative.  There are so many tests available in India and abroad for this purpose.  We are mentioning a few of these tests below.

§  Tests Standardized Abroad

1.     Minnesota tests of creative thinking

2.     Guilford’s Divergent Thinking Instrument

3.     Remote Associate Test

4.     Wallach and Kogan Creativity Instrument

5.     A.C. Tests of creative Ability

6.     Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking


§  Tests Standardized in India

1.     Baquer Mehdi’s Tests of Creative Thinking-Hindi and English

2.     Passi’s Tests of Creativity

3.     Sharma’s Divergent Production Abilities Test.

4.     Saxena’s Tests of Creativity.

As pointed out earlier, creativity is a complex blend of a number of abilities and traits.  Therefore, in all the creative tests, attempts are always made for the assessment of these abilities and traits with the help of verbal and non-verbal test items.  The factors or dimensions commonly measured through these tests are fluency, flexibility, originality, divergent thinking and elaboration.

Let us now illustrate the measurement of creativity components with the help of two creativity tests-one standardized abroad and the other in India.


Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. It is a set of two tests-one verbal and the other non-verbal.  It has been developed by the famous American psychologist E. Paul Torrance and can be employed to test the creativity of the children from Kindergarten to graduation.

For testing the creativity through non-verbal and verbal performance, Torrance has thus developed figural form A and B and verbal form A and B (Forms B are the equivalent alternatives of the forms A).


The Figural Form (non- verbal testing device). The activities required in this test are of the non-verbal nature.  The subject has to perform certain non-verbal activities, i.e. draw or make something as a response to the test items.  This test has three sub-tests as described below:

1.     Figure or picture completion test. In this sub-test, there are some incomplete figures. The subject is asked to complete these figures in whatever way he desires.

2.     Picture or figural construction test. In this sub-test, the subject in provided with a      piece of  coloured paper cut in a curved shape and asked to think of a figure or       picture of which this piece or paper may be a part.

1.     Parallel lines test : In this sub-test, there are several pairs of straight lines. The subject is required to draw as many objects or pictures by using such pair.

The verbal forms (used as a verbal testing device) Through the items of the sub-tests of this form, the subject is required to provide written responses.  There are six sub-tests incorporating activities of the following nature.

1.     Asking type : Here the subject is encouraged to reveal his ability to perceive all things that are not normally perceived by others.

2.     Guess cause and guess consequences types : Here the subject is encouraged to reveal his ability to formulate hypotheses concerning cause and effect, i.e. what is behind the situation in the picture and what its consequence may be.

3.     Product Improvement Type : The subjects are asked to suggest ways and means to improve a toy, a machine or such other products.

4.     Unusual Uses Type : These are meant to test the divergence about the ways of using a product. Here the subjects have to tell about as many unusual uses as they can point out to use a product.

5.     Unusual Questions Type : Here for a particular object or verbal description, the subjects are required to ask as many unusual questions as they can.

6.     Just Suppose Type : The subjects are required to predict outcomes of unusual situations. The responses of the subject are scored in all the sub-test items of both the forms (figural and verbal) and then his total score is computed for providing an estimate of his overall creative potential.


Baquer Mehdi’s Tests of Creativity : This test has been developed by Dr. Baquer Mehdi.  It has been published by National Psychological Corporation, Agra. There are four verbal and three non-verbal sub-tests under this.  This verbal form has the following four sub-tests.

1.     Consequence Test (duration 12 minutes). In this test, the subject is asked to think of as many consequences as possible for situations like-

1.     What would happen if we could fly like a bid?

2.     What would have happened if your school had wheels?

3.     What would happen if you do not have any need for food?

4.     Unusual uses test (duration 15 minutes). It includes test items like-Write as many novel, interesting and usual uses for objects like a piece of stone, a wooden stick, water.

3.     New relationship test (duration 15 minutes). It has the test items like below.

Think of as many relationships between the following pairs of words, as possible.    (i) Tree, house  (ii) Chair, ladder (iii) Air, Water

4.     Product improvement test (duration 6 minutes). It consists of test items like below.

You have a toy horse. Now think of as many new things or features that can make it   more useful and interesting.

Non-verbal Sub-tests : The three sub tests of this category are of the following types :

1.     Picture construction test (duration 20 minutes). It contains test items like below

figure there are two geometrical figures-a semi-circle and a rhombus.  Construct       and elaborate pictures using each figure as an integral part.  For each picture give a   separate title

(b) Line figure completion test (duration 15 minutes). Below figure, there are 10 incomplete line drawings.  You have to draw meaningful and interesting pictures using each of them.  Also give an appropriate title for each of your creation.

(c) Picture construction test (duration 10 minutes). Here there are seven triangles and    seven ellipses.  Construct different meaningful and interesting pictures by using these figures in multiple associations.

In all such creativity tests as illustrated above, the verbal and non-verbal activities are evaluated in terms of related creative abilities like fluency, originality, flexibility and elaboration.  A high score on this creative test increases the probability of declaring the subject as creative.  However, such declaration may need further support from the results of the assessment made through some other testing devices.



The creative aspect of a child can also be assessed through some non-testing devices like Natural observation method, Situational techniques, Rating scale, Check list Interview, Personality inventories, Interest inventories, Attitude scales.  Aptitude test, Value schedules, and Projective techniques, and so on.  These devices help in the revelation of those personality traits and behavioural characteristics that are supposed to be present in a creative child.  Some of these traits or characteristics, as identified by the research workers in the field of creativity, are mentioned below.

Personality and Behavioural Characteristics of a Creative Child

1.     Demonstrates originality in ideas and actions.

2.     Is more adaptable as well as adventurous.

3.     Possesses good memory and broad knowledge background.

4.     Possesses a high degree of keenness, attentiveness, alertness and power of concentration.

5.     Is very curious about nature.

6.     Possesses little tolerance for boredom but greater for ambiguity and discomfort.

7.     Possesses foresightedness in abundance.

8.     Has the capacity to take independent decisions.

9.     Shows interest in vague and ambiguous ideas.

10.            Enjoy a reputation of having strange and silly ideas.

11.            Shows preferences to complexity, incompleteness, asymmetry and open mindedness.

12.            Possesses a high degree of sensitivity towards problems.

13.            Can express his ideas as fluently as possible.

14.            Shows flexibility in his thinking, feeling and doing behaviour.

15.            Demonstrates the ability to transfer learning or training from or situation to another

16.            Demonstrates very rich imagination characterized as ‘creative imagination’.

17.            Is divergent and diversified in his thinking that is convergent and stereotyped.

18.            Possesses ability to elaborate, i.e. to work out the details of a plan, idea or outline.

19.            Is not frightened by the unknown, the mysterious and the puzzling and on the contrary is often attracted towards it.

20.            Welcomes novelty of designs or new solution to a problem, gets enthused and suggests other ideas.

Methods of Developing Creativity among children

Creativity, as a natural endowment, needs stimulation and nourishment.  Most of the creative talent, if not given proper training, education and opportunities for creative expression, results in wastage.  Moreover, creativity, as we have emphasized earlier, is universal.  It is not the monopoly of a few geniuses only.  Every one of us, to a certain degree, possesses creative abilities.  In a democratic set up like ours, it is not only the geniuses who are needed to create, manifest and produce.  Others, whether mediocre or below average, are also required to think constructively and creatively.

Therefore, it becomes essential for the teachers as well as parents to realize the need of providing proper environment and creating conditions for complete growth and development of the creative abilities of children.  The problem is vital, but there is a solution.  It lies in the proper stimulation and nurturing of the abilities that seem related to develop creativity.  Originality, flexibility, ideational fluency, divergent thinking, self confidence, persistence, sensitiveness, ability to see relationship and make associations etc. are some of the abilities that are attached to creative output.  The following few suggestions can work satisfactorily in the stimulation and nourishment of these abilities:



Most often we, teachers and parents, expect a routine type fixed response from our children and thus kill the very creative spark by breeding conformity and passivity.  Therefore, we should allow adequate freedom to our children in responding to a situation.  They should be encouraged to think about as many ideas as they may for the solution of a problem.  Also we must let them have their own way when they strongly need a particular sort of novel expression.


The feelings like “It is my creation”, I have solved it”, give much satisfaction to children.  Actually, they can only be expected to put their determined efforts in creative activities when their ego is involved. i.e., when they feel that a particular creative work stands on account of their efforts.  Therefore, we should provide opportunities for children to derive satisfaction from being a cause.


          Originality on the part of children in any form should be encouraged.  Constant submission to the facts, unadulterated copying, passive reception, rote-memorization discourage creative expression and therefore, it should be checked as far as possible.  In solving a problem or learning a task if they need to change their methods of learning or solving the problem, they essentially be encouraged to do it.  Adequate training can also be given by making them answer the problems like:  How would you dig the earth if you don’t have a spade?  Or how would you draw an angle if you do not have proper instrument for drawing it?  Or how would you cross a river if there is no bridge over it?


Most of the time (particularly in countries like ours where there is too much inferiority complex) there is a great hesitation mixed with a sense of inferiority and fear in taking initiative for a creative expression.  We, generally, listen to comments like “I know what I mean, but cannot write or speak before others,”  The causes of such hesitation and fear should be discovered and removed as far as possible.  The teachers and parents should persuade such children to say or write something, anything, no matter how crude it may be.


Industriousness, persistence, reliance and self-confidence are some of the qualities that are helpful in creative output.  Therefore, children should be helped to imbibe these qualities.  Moreover, they should be made to stand against the criticism of their creative expression.  They should be made to feel that whatever they create is unique and it expresses what they desired to express.


Children should be made to visit the centers of creativity for scientific and industrial creative works.  It can stimulate and inspire them for doing some creative work.  Occasionally, creative artists, scientists and creative persons from other fields may also be invited to schools.  It can be helpful in enhancing the span of the knowledge of our children and kindle the spark of creativity among them.




The factors like conservatism, faculty methods of teaching, unsympathetic treatment, fixed and rigid habits of work, anxiety and frustration, high standards of achievement for low levels of work, overemphasis on school marks, authoritarian attitudes of teachers and parents etc., are known to be detrimental towards fostering creativity among children.  Therefore, as far as possible parents and teachers should try to avoid such factors in upbringing and education the children.



Our education system is totally examination-ridden.  Therefore, for making efforts to nurture creativity we must have suitable reforms in our evaluation system.  The emphasis on rote memory, fixed and rigid single responses, and convergent thinking etc, which kill the creativity of the children, should be abandoned and a proper system of evaluation for encouraging complete and balanced experiences in developing their creative behaviour should be adopted.




J.P.. Guilford and his associates have developed a model of intellect on the basis of the factor analysis of several tests employed for testing intelligence of human beings.  They have come to the conclusion that any mental process or intellectual activity of the human being can be described in terms of three basic dimensions or parameters known as operation (the act of thinking or way of processing the information); contents (the terms in which we think or the type of information involved); and products (the ideas we come up with, i.e. the fruits of a thinking).  Each of these parameters-operations, contents and products-may be further subdivided into some specific factors or elements.  As a result, operations may be subdivided into 5 specific factors, contents into 5 and products into 6.  The interaction of these three parameters, according to Guilford, thus results into the 5 x 5 x 6 = 150 different elements or factors in one’s intelligence.  In a figural form, these 150 factors or independent abilities of the human beings along with the basic parameters and their divisions can be represented through a model named as Guilford’s Model of Intellect or Intelligence

This model proposes that intelligence consists of 150 independent abilities that result from the interaction of five types of contents, five types of operations and six types of products. Guilford, 1982.

What is implied by these contents, operations and products can be understood through the following brief description.

Contents (The type of Information involved).


§  Figural (visual) – The properties of stimuli we can experience through visual senses e.g. colour, size, shape, texture and other visual characters of figure.

§  Figural (Auditor) – The properties of stimuli we can experience through the auditory sense, e.g. voice and sound.

§  Symbolic – Numbers, letters, symbols, designs.

§  Semantic – The meaning of words, ideas.

§  Behavioural – The actions and expressions of people.

Operations (The way of Processing information).

§  Cognition – Recognizing and discovering.

§  Memory – Retaining and recalling the contents of thought.

§  Divergent production – Producing a variety of ideas or solutions to a problem.

§  Convergent production – Producing a single best solution to a problem.

§  Evaluation – Taking decision about the nature of the intellectual contents or gathered information whether it is positive or negative, good or bad etc.,

Products (The results obtained through Operations).

§  Units – Individual pieces of information limited in size, e.g. a single number, letter or word.

§  Classes – Groups of units information related to each other on the basis of some common characteristics involving a higher order concept (e.g. men + women = people).

§  Relations – A connection between concepts.

§  Systems – An ordering or classification of relations.

§  Transformation – altering or restructuring intellectual contents.

§  Implications – Making inferences from separate pieces of information.

In this way, according to Guilford’s model of intellect, there are 150 factors operating in one’s intelligence.  Each one of these factors has a trigram symbol, i.e. at least one factor from each category of three parameters has to be present in any specific intellectual activity or mental task.

Let us illustrate this basic fact with an example.  Suppose a child is asked to find out the day of the week on a particular date with the help of a calendar.  In the execution of this mental task, he will need mental operations like convergent thinking, memory and cognition.  For carrying out these operations, he has to make use of the contents.  In this particular case, he will make use of semantics, i.e. reading and understanding of the printed words and figures indicating days and dates of a particular month in the calendar. By carrying out mental operations with the help of contents he will finally arrive at the products.  The day of the week to which the date in question refers, represents the factor known as “relations”.  He may further transform and apply this knowledge to identify the days for contiguous dates or vice versa.

Conclusion about the Factor’s Theory of Intelligence

Each of the seven theories of Intelligence described above attempts to provide a structure of intelligence in terms of its constituents or factors.  These theories exhibit wide variations in terms of the numbers of factor that they consider important.  The range of all such factors also varies from 1 (Unitary theory) to 150 (Guilford’s Intellect Model).  However, for understanding what goes on inside one’s intelligence we must try to build an eclectic view by incorporating the essence of all the workable theories of intelligence.  Consequently, any intellectual activity or mental task may be said to involve the following three kinds of basic factors (arranged in the order as suggested by Vernon or in the form of the model suggested by Guilford).

1.     General factor G (Common to all tasks)

2.     Specific factors S1, S2, etc. (Specific to the tasks)

3.     Group factor G (Common to the task belonging to a specific group)




            We are only familiar with that intelligence of an individual which is manifested by him on an intelligence test or tests.  Psychologists have devised many such tests for the measurement of intelligence.

Classification of Intelligence Tests

1.     As far as the administrative point of view is concerned the intelligence tests can be classified into two broad categories namely-

(a) Individual tests : In which only one individual is tested at a time.

(b) Group tests: In which a group of individuals is tested at a time.

2.     Another way of classifying the intelligence tests is based on the form of the test Accordingly there are two types of tests:

(a) Verbal or Language tests : These tests make use of language.  Here the instructions

are given in words (either in written or oral form or both).  Individuals are required to use language as well as paper and pencil for giving the responses. The test content of these tests is loaded with verbal material.

(b) Non-Verbal and Non-Language tests : These tests involve such activities in which the use of language is not necessary.  The use of language is eliminated from test content and response except in giving directions.

Individual Verbal Tests

            The tests involving the use of language and administered to an individual at a time belong to this category.  As an example of such tests we can refer to Stanford-Binet Scale. It is the revised form of the Binet-Simon test.  Actually, French psychologist Alfred Binet is said to be the father of intelligence test construction movement.  He, along with Theodore Simon, prepared a test in as early as 1905, comprising 30 items (arranged in order of increasing difficulty) graded from different levels.  The test included items like:

At age 3 – Point out the nose, eyes and mouth

At age 7 – Tell what is missing  in the unfinished picture.

In the 1931, the first American revision of this test was published by Terman at Stanford university and in 1937 another revision was carried on with the help of Maud A. Merril.  This as well as 1960’s revision is called Stanford-Binet Scale and widely used as an individual intelligence test

The tests in this scale are grouped in age levels, extending from age 2 to 22 years.  The tasks to be performed by the subjects in these various tests range from simple manipulation to abstract reasoning.

Binet Tests have been adopted in India too.  The first such attempt was made by Dr.C.H. Rice in 1922 when he published his “Hindustani Binet Performance Point Scale”.  This was an adaptation of the Binet test along with performance tests. The State Manovigyan Shala of Uttar Pradesh has made a Hindi version of Stanford  Binet Test.  This test is divided into several age-groups and named as ‘Budhi Pariksha Anooshilan’.

The other common Verbal Individual Intelligence test (used in India) is Samanya Budhi Pariksha (Pt. 1 and 2).  This test is an Indian adaptation of the well-known test of William Stephenson.  It has been prepared by State Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance, Gwalior (M.P).


Individual Performance Tests

            As said earlier, the complete non-verbal or non-language tests of intelligence for testing an individual at a time come into this classification.  In these the contents and responses are in the form of performance and language is not used at all.  In these tests the items which require responses in terms of motor activities are included.  Generally the activities, on which the performance of an individual is tested, are of the following types:

(i) Block building or cube construction.  Here the subject is asked to make a structure      or design  by means of blocks or cubes supplied to him.  The examples of the tests     involving such type of activities are Merril Palmer Block Building, Koh’s Block  Design Test, Alexander’s Pass-along Test etc.

          (ii) To fit the block in the holes. Test material of such types provides numerous blocks and a board in which there are holes corresponding to these blocks.  The subject has  to fit the blocks in these corresponding holes (I the board).  Examples are Seguin  Form Board test and Goddard Form Board Test.

         (iii) Tracing a maze. Test material consists of a series of mazes of increasing difficulty, each printed on a separate sheet.  The  subject is required to trace with pencil the path from entrance to exit.  Porteus Maze Test is an example involving such type of  activities.

(iv) Picture arrangement or picture completion.  In picture arrangement test, the task is to arrange in series the given picture whereas in picture competition test,  the subject is required to complete the pictures with the help of given pieces cut out of each picture.  The Healy pictorial completion test is a good example of such test which provides a good estimate of the intelligence of the subject without making  use of language.

As seen above, these tests try to emphasize upon one or the other types of performance.  Instead of using one or two tests a group of performance test, organized either into a scale or battery, may be used for a comprehensive picture of an individual’s mental ability.  Some of the popular known scales are:

(i) The Pinter Patterson Scale.

(ii) The Arthur Point Scale.

(iii) Alexander’s Battery of Performance Tests.

In India too, attempts for constructing such batteries have been made.  Dr. Chander Mohan Bhatia’s work in this regard deserves special mention.  He has developed a battery of performance tests known as ‘Bhatia’s Battery of Performance Tests’. It contains the following five sub-tests:

1.     Koh’s Block Design Test.

2.     Alexander’s Pass-along Test.

3.     Pattern Drawing Test.

4.     Immediate memory test for digits (with an alternative form suitable for illiterates)

5.     Immediate memory test for digits (with an alternative form suitable for illiterates).

6.     Picture construction Test.

The last three tests in this battery have been constructed by Mr.Bhatia himself while former two have been borrowed.



This scale is available in two forms.  While the WISC form is used for children, the WAIS form is for adults.  It is an individual test that has a unique quality of being named as verbal and performance scale simultaneously.

The scale consists of eleven sub-tests six sub-tests make up a verbal scale and five performance scale.  These tests are listed below in the order in which they are administered.

Verbal Scale :

1.     Test of General information

2.     Test of General comprehension

3.     Test of Arithmetic reasoning

4.     Test of distinction between similarities

5.     Test of Digit span

6.     Test of Vocabulary

Performance Scale :

7.     Digit symbol tst

8.     Picture completion test

9.     Block Design test

10.            Picture arrangement test

11.            Object assembly test

The scores on these sub-tests are added to get an idea of an individual’s intelligence.

Group Verbal Intelligence Tests

            The tests, which necessitate the use of language and are applied to a group of individuals at a time, come under this category.  Some of the earlier tests belonging to this category are :

1.     Army Alpha Test (developed in World War)

2.     Army General Classification Test (developed in second World War)

Today we have a large number of group verbal tests.  In India too, attempts have been made to construct such tests.  Some of the popular tests of this nature are-

1.     C.I.E. Verbal Group Test of Intelligence (Hindi) constructed by Prof. Uday Shankar

2.     The Group Test of General Mental Ability (Samuhik Mansik Yogyata Pariksha) constructed by Dr. J.S. Jalota (Hindi)

3.     Group test of Intelligence, prepared by Bureau of Psychology, Allahabad (Hindi)

4.Prayag Mehta’s Group Intelligence Test (samuhik Budhi Pariksha, Hindi).  This test  has been published by Mansayan, Delhi.

5.     General Mental Abilities Test prepared by Dr.P.S. Hundal of Punjab University Panjabi)

1.     Group verbal intelligence test prepared by Dr.P. Gopala Pillai of the KeralaUniversity (Malayalam)

2.     Samuhic Budhi Pariksha (Hindi), prepared by Shri P.L. Shrimali, Vidya BhavanG.S. Teacher College, Udaipur.

8.     Samuhic Budhi Ki Jaanch (Hindi), prepared by Shri M.S. Mohsin, Educational and Vocational Guidance Bureau, Patna, Bihar.

The Group Non-Verbal Intelligence Tests

These tests do not necessitate the use of language and are applicable to a group of individual at a given time.

The difference between performance test (used for an individual) and non-verbal tests (used for a group) is in the degree as far as their non-verbal nature is concerned.  The performance tests require the manipulation of concrete objects or materials supplied in the test by the subject.  Responses are purely motor in character and seldom require the use of paper and pencil by the testee, (except in cases like Maze Test etc.) where as the test material used for group testing, is provided in booklet and requires the use of pencil by the testee.

Still in these tests, material does not contain words or numerical figures.  It contains pictures, diagrams and geometrical figures etc. printed in a booklet.  The subject is required to do such activities so as to fill in some empty spaces, draw some simple figures to point out similarities and dissimilarities etc.  So, although the subject uses paper and pencil, he does not need to know words or numerical figures.  What he has to do is explained clearly by the examiner usually through clear demonstrations so as to make the least possible use of language.  The examples of such type of tests are:

1.     Army Beta Test. It was developed during World War I, in U.S.A. for testing the intelligence

of those soldiers who were either illiterate or were not used to English language.

2.     Chicago Non-verbal Test. This non-verbal test has proved most useful for young children aged between 12 and 13 years.

3.     Raven’s Progressive materials Test. This test was developed in the U.K.  It is a very popular non-verbal group test of intelligence.  The test has been designed to evaluate the subjects ability-

(a) to see relationship between geometric figures or designs.

(b) to perceive the structure of the design in order to select appropriate part for the     Competition of each pattern.

C.I.E. Non-Verbal Group Test of Intelligence. Originally prepared by J.W. Jenkins, the test Is printed by C.I.E. for adaptation into Hindi medium Schools.  The test contains such terms As instructed in the following figure.


Verbal Tests Vs Non-Verbal and Performance Tests :

What led to the construction of non-verbal and performance test when verbal tests were there for testing the intelligence, is a relevant question to be asked.  Verbal tests, as already said, laid emphasis on linguistic ability.  They were loaded with verbal material words and numerical.  Hence those with linguistic superiority were always on the advantageous side in comparison to those having language weakness.  To do away with such flaws, non-verbal and performance tests were put to use.  In brief, the advantage of these tests over verbal tests are as under.

1.     Performance tests are useful for those who have language handicap due to one or more of the following reasons.

(a) They may belong to the foreign language speaking group.

(b) They may be illiterates, not knowing how to read and write.

(c) They may have difficulties in reading, writing and listening due to defects in their sense organs (deaf , dumb etc.)

(d) They may be younger children who are not yet able to read and write well.

(e) They may be mentally retarded or mentally deficient children and therefore, very slow in grasping and responding to the verbal items.

(f) They may belong to unprivileged class or strata of the society and hence may have had limited education opportunities.

2.     Verbal test belonging to one region contains the material which has a direct relationship with the language or culture of that region or country. Non-verbal and performance tests are more or less language and culture-free and hence can be used for cross-cultural and linguistic study of intelligence.

3.     They can prove useful in the efforts to determine aptitude and promise in shop work mechanical jobs and so on.


How Good can Intelligence be Measured?

Measurement of intelligence is not possible in the same way as we measure a piece of cloth or the temperature of our body.  Why is it not possible can be understood through the following discussion:

1.     Nature of the thing we want to measure : Intelligence is not a thing. It is only an idea, an abstraction. Therefore, its measurement is not possible like the measurement of a piece of cloth, wood or land etc.

2.     Nature of the instrument or the scale by which intelligence is measured: In measuring a piece of cloth we use scales made up of absolute units. For measuring temperature of the body we use thermometers having degrees as units of measurement. In such measurement, we use scales made up of absolute units and the instruments give somewhat reliable and valid results.  But in case of intelligence measurement we don’t have such scales.  Here, as Griffith observes “the standard of measurement is the group of performance.



As we have already used the term ‘mental age’ and I,Q. in the interpretation of intelligence test results, it is worth knowing something about them as well.

Mental age.  The term mental age was first used by Binet.  Its concept can be clarified with the help of the following example.

Suppose there is a test comprising 100 questions (like Jalota’s test) and the majority of the subjects, whose age is 13 years 6 months, answer successfully 48 questions, then an individual who earns a score, 48, regardless of his chronological age, will be said to have a mental age of 13 years 6 months.

Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) This term was initiated by the German psychologist William Stern and put into wide practice by Terman.  It appeared to Stern that if a child was 6 years old (chronologically), but could do what an 8 years old normally does he would be 8/6 or 1.33 as bright as the average.  And in this way, he made the ratio M.A./C.A., measure of the rate of mental development of an individual.  The ratio was given the name of Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) To do away with the decimal point, the ratio was a gain multiplied by 100 and thus the formula to calculate I.Q. is:

Mental Age (M.A.)

I.Q. =   ———————————— x 100 (as used in Standard Binet Scale)

Chronological Age (C.A.)


Attained or actual score

I.Q. =   ———————————— x 100 (as used by Wesschsler)

Expected mean score for Age

 Classification of I.Q.

            By making use of the formula of I.Q. by sterm.  Terman tried to classify the individuals into certain specific categories on the basis of the data collected through the administration of

his intelligence tests for terming them average, below average and above average as given below:


I.Q.                                                    Level of Intelligence


140 and above                         Gifted or Genius

120-140                                   Very Superior

110-120                                   Superior

90-110                                              Normal or Average

75-90                                                Border Line and Dull

50-75                                                Morons

25-50                                                Imbeciles

Below 25                                 Idiots


However, as far as the classification based on the intelligence tests suitable to the Indian conditions is concerned, the following one presented by Professor Uday Shankar may work well


I.Q.                                 Level of Intelligence


140 and above                         Genius

120-140                                   Very Superior

110-125                                   Superior

90-110                                              Average

75-90                                                Border Line and Dull

50-75                                                Morons or Feeble minded

25-50                                                Imbeciles

Below 25                                 Idiots



The bell shaped normal curve explains that intelligence is normally distributed.
The mean IQ is 100 Sixty percent of the cases lie between 90 and 110, called the persons of average intelligence.

The Constancy of I.Q.

As mentioned earlier, intelligence grows till the age of 16 or 18 years, but I.Q. for most of the individuals remains constant.  Primarily I.Q. provides a ratio for knowing how bright an individual is as compared with others of his own age.

Actually, it is an index which is independent not only of the particular score that an individual makes on a particular scale but also of the particular age at which he happens to make it.  It is thus a measure which acquaints us with the relative brightness or intellectual possibilities of an individual more or less permanently see the following figure. 

Uses and Limitations of Intelligence Tests :

Intelligence tests have their advantage as well as drawbacks. Below we list them one by one.


1.     For the purpose of selection. Intelligence tests are often used for the purpose of making selection of the suitable candidates for activities like-

2.     a) admission in a particular course of instruction

3.     b) deciding the cases of scholarships.

4.     c) choosing candidates for assigning some specific responsibilities.

5.     d) selecting candidates for participation in various co-curricular activities etc.


2.For the purpose of classificationIntelligence tests help the teacher classify the students as bright, dull or average and put them in homogeneous groups in order to bring efficiency in the teaching-learning process.

3.     For the purpose of Promotion. Intelligence tests can prove as one of the useful instruments in promoting the individuals not only in educational fields but in all other occupational and social situations where one studies to go higher on the ladder.

4.     For knowing one’s potentiality. Intelligence tests help in revealing the potentialities of an individual and thus make possible the predication of one’s success in a particular field. The knowledge of such potentiality helps the teacher in the following ways :

5.     Giving guidance

6.     Helps in learning process

7.     To establish a proper level of aspiration

8.     For diagnostic purpose. Exceptional children like gifted, backward and the mentally retarded children can be detected with the help of intelligence tests. Moreover, the intelligence tests help in the diagnosis of the root causes of problematic behaviour of the child and likewise suggest possible remedies.

9.     Helps in Research work. Intelligence testing has proved very useful in psychological environment in the process of growth and development, research workers have made much use of intelligence testing.


1.     Intelligence tests and students: Intelligence tests label some students as superior and the others as inferiors. This type of knowledge creates many problems. Children who are slightly dull are still intelligent enough to realize the results of the intelligence tests that they are slow to learn.   It makes them disappointed and causes inferiority feelings and ultimately mars their future.  On the other hand, students with a slight more I.Q. may become overconfident.  There is every possibility that these students may not them give serious attention to their work.  Also the consciousness of their superiority may result in misbehavior on their part and can turn them into problem children.

2.     Intelligence tests and teacher. Teachers, after knowing the I.Q. of the child, make a permanent opinion about the child’s potentialities and abilities. They try to see him through his I.Q. They leave no attempt to discourage or create overconfidence in the students according to the level of their intelligence announced by their tests. Moreover, knowledge of the intelligence of the pupil’s failure for a teacher may result in slackness on his part.  He may put the entire responsibility of a pupil’s failure on his inferior intelligence and not care for a bright pupil thinking that he would be able to learn on his own.  In this way, the knowledge of intelligence supplied by these may bring disastrous results to the teacher.

3.     Given birth to Segregation and conflicts. Intelligence test results have been misused to uphold the theory of royal blood, segregation and sectarian outlook. In U.S.A., it has led to a conflict between the Negro and the white populations.  The conflict, in actual sense, is the result of misconception about the predictive value of these tests and their correlation with hereditary factors. In defence, we can put forward the following point.

      “The results of all such tests”  as Crow and Crow put it, “may be effected by many factors inherent in the testing conditions, the child’s background of experience and other favourable or unfacourable elements.  Hence, no administrator, teacher or student of education should accept test results as the only measure of an individual’s ability to learn.”

            In this way, it is not proper to give undue weightage to intelligence tests.  They should not be accepted as the only measure of an individual’s degree of ability to learn.  They should not be made an instrument of creating complexes among the students and misunderstanding among the teachers.  In a nut-shell, the result of these must be interpreted and used intelligently.  They should be taken as the means and not the end in themselves.




This theory was advocated by Charles Spearman.  According to him every different intellectual activity involves a general factor ‘g’ which is shared with all the intellectual activities and a specific factor ‘s’ which it shares with none

In this way, he suggested that there is something which might be called ‘general intelligence’, a sort of general mental energy, running through all the different tasks but in addition to this general factor, there are specific abilities, which make an individual able to deal with particular kinds of problems.  For example, an individual’s performance in Hindi is partly due to his general intelligence and partly some kind of specific ability in language which he might possess, i.e. g+S1; or in mathematics his performance would be due to g+S2; or in drawing it will be due to g+S3; and so on and so forth.  The factor g (in lesser or greater degree) will enter in all specific activities.  The total ability or intelligence of such an individual (symbolized as A) thus will be expressed by the following equation schedule:

G + S1 + S2 + S3 + … = A

This two factor theory of Spearman has been criticized on various grounds, some of which have been listed below:

1.     Spearman said that there are only two factors expressing intelligence but as we have    seen there are not only two but several factors (g  s1,  s2,   s3 ……….etc.) expressing   it.

2.     According to Spearman, each task requires some specific ability. This view was not    proper as it implied that there was nothing common in the tasks except a general   factor and profession such as those of nursing, compounders and doctors could not be  put in one group.  In fact the factor s1,  s2,   s3 ……….etc. are not mutually   exclusive.  They overlap and give birth to certain common factors.

This idea of overlapping and grouping has been responsible for the origin of a new theory called Group Factor theory.


Teaching Models


Some of the teaching models developed by educationists may prove quite beneficial in developing creativity among children.  For example, Bruner’s Concept Attainment Model helps in developing creativity in children for the attainment of various concepts.  Similarly, Suchman’s Inquiry Training Model is very helpful in developing creativity among children besides imparting training in the acquisition of scientific inquiry skills.



            Gaming techniques, in a play way spirit, help the children in the development of creative aspects.  These techniques provide valuable learning experience in a very relaxed, un timed and evaluative situation.  The stimulus material used in such techniques is both verbal as well as non verbal.  For illustration in verbal transaction of ideas, the following types of questions may be addressed to the children:

(i) Name all the round things you can think of.

(ii) Tell all the different ways you could use a knife.

(iii) Tell all the ways in which a cat and a dog are alike.

In non-verbal transactions, children may be asked to build a cube, construct or complete a picture, draw and build patterns, interpret the patterns of drawing and sketches, and build or construct anything out of the raw material given to them.



There is a truth in the saying that ‘Self example is better than precept.’  Children are very imitative.  The teachers and parents, who themselves travel on the beaten track and do not show any  originality by taking the risk of being wrong or never experience an excitement of creating a novel act, fail to cultivate creativity among their children.  Therefore, the teachers and parents must try to develop the habit of creative thinking among themselves.  They should believe in change, novelty and originality, and experience the creative process themselves.  Their teaching, their mode of behaviour must reflect their love for creativity.  Then and only then can they inspire children for being creative.




            For the factors not common to all the intellectual abilities but common to certain activities comprising a group, the term ‘group factor’ was suggested.  Prominent among the propagators of this theory is L.L. Thurstone.  While working on a test of primary mental abilities, he came to the conclusion that certain mental operations have a primary factor in common which gives them psychological and functional unity and differentiates them from other mental operations.  These mental operations constitute a group factor.  So, there are a number of groups of mental abilities each of which has its own primary factor.  Thurstone and his associates have differentiated nine such factors. These are :

1.     Verbal factor (V): Concerns with comprehension of verbal relations, word and ideas,.

2.     Spatial factor (S): is involved in any ask in which the subject manipulates an object    imaginatively in space.

3.     Numerical factor (N): concerns with the ability to do numerical calculations, rapidly and  accurately.

4.     Memory factor (M): involves the ability to memorize quickly,

5.     Word Fluency Factor (W): is involved whenever the subject is asked to think of isolated words at a rapid rate.

6.     Inductive reasoning Factor (RI): concerns with the ability to generalize through specific examples.

7.     Deductive reasoning factor (RD): concerns with the ability to make use of generalized result.

8.     Perceptual factor (P): concerns with the ability to perceive objects accurately.

9.     Problem-solving ability factor (PS): concerns with the ability to solve problems    independently.


The weakest link in the group factor theory was that it discarded the concept of common factor. However, it did not take Thurstone too long to realize his mistake and reveal a general factor in addition to group factors.



Self -test

Intelligence and Creativity

Choose the Correct Answer :

1.     Intelligence means ‘Seven primary mental abilities’ was said by

a. Spearman      b. Thurstone       c. Guilford         d. Vernon

2.     The father of intelligence tests is

a. Binet        b. Kohler          c. Pavlov           d. Thorndike

3.     The three dimentional theory of intelligence was propounded by

a. Woodworth               b. Watson              c. McDougall             d. Guilford

4.     Two factor theory of intelligence was formulated by

a. Thorndike          b. Thurstone         c.  Spearman            d. Guilford

5.     Intelligence Quotient (IQ) means

a.              Mental age                                             b.                Chronological  age

          ———————— x 100                          ————————–  x 100

                     Chronological age                                                                 Mental  age

          c.              Attainment age                                        d.                    Chronological age

                    ———————— x 100                       ———————–      x 100

                         Chronological age                                                              Attainment age

6.     Progressive educational programme is meant for

a. Gifted Children                                               b. Slow learners

c. Mentally retarded children                        d. Physically handicapped children.


7.     Which is the most suitable learning method for gifted children

a. Library learning                                             b. Laboratory learning

c. Double promotion learning                        d.  Special promotion learning

8.     ‘Intelligence is of three kinds’ was said by

a. E.L. Thorndike               b. E. Erickson             c. B.F. Skinner            d. J.P. Guilford

9.     Intelligence comprises of general factor and specific factor’ was said by

a. Charles Spearman                                           b McClelland, Atkinson

c.  Murry, Morgan                                                d. Binet, Simon

10.            Intelligence test was first developed by

a. Binet, Simon      b. McClelland, Atkinson        c. Murray, Morgan     d. Crow, Crow

11.            The test items found in Binet’s Intelligence test is

a. 20               b. 25                      c. 30                   d. 35

12.            Minnesota test of creative thinking was developed by

a. Baquer Medi               b. Guilford                  c. Torrance            d. Stoddard

13.            The IQ of the gifted child is

a. 100               b. 120                 c. 110                    d. 130

14.            The IQ of the slow learner is

a. 100-110                 b. 90-100                 c.  80-90                 d.  below 80

15.            Novel and unique ability is called

a. Intelligence               b. Creativity              c. Aptitude                  d. Originality


16.            Who insists that four steps are needed for the formation of creative thinking?

a. Gragam Wallace               b. Bartlet               c. Torrance             d. Ebbinghaus

17.            Which is the most suitable intelligence test for the age group of 7 to 16?

a. Binet Simon intelligence test                   b. Wechsler intelligence test

c. Guilford’s intelligence test                        d. Bhatia’s intelligence test

18.            The percentage of backward children in each class is

a. 6 to 8 %               b. 8 to 10 %                 c.  10 to 12 %           d.  12 to 15 %

19.            Giving suitable title is a test of measuring

a. Intellectual ability   b. Creative ability    c. Artistic ability    d. Personality trait skill

20.            In developing creativity, the assignment questions should induce

a. Divergent thinking                                       b. Convergent thinking

c. Creative thinking                                          d. Reflective thinking

21.            The children who create high self-actualization over themselves also develop

a. Self-value            b. Self-actualization            c. Personality        d. Interest

22.            Performance tests are used to measure

a. Creativity               b. Intelligence              c. Aptitude           d. Personality

23.            Creative child’s IQ is

a. 120 and above               b. 110-120                   c.  90-110           d.  below 80

24.            Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was developed by

a. Torrence               b. Osborn                    c. Stern                 d. Atkinson


25.            The permanent difference found in Physique and Behaviour between individuals is

a  Individual differences                b. Effect of heredity

c. Effect of environment                d. Effect of heredity of environment